- English Name:
- Urdu Name:
- Scientific Name:
- Citrus sp.
Pakistan is the sixth largest producer of Kinow (mandarin) and oranges in the world. In Pakistan during 2011-12 area of citrus was 193977 hectares and the production was 2147340 Tonns. Pakistan is also the largest producer of ‘Citrus Reticula’ variety (Kinow), this unique variety of citrus is indigenous to this part of the world. According to an estimate approx. 95 percent of the total Kinow produced all over the world is grown in Pakistan.
Major Citrus Growing Areas & Varieties in Pakistan
- Punjab: Distt. Sargodha, Sahiwal, Lahore, Sialkot, Jhang, Minwali, Multan, Gujranwala
- NWFP: Mardan, Peshawer, Swat, Swabi, Noshera, Hazzara
- Sind: Sukkur, Khairpur, Nawabshah
- Baluchistan: Mekran, Sibi and Kech.
- Sweet Orange: Succri,. Mausami, Washington Navel, Jaffa, Red Blood, Ruby Red and Valencia Late.
- Mandarines: Feutrells Early and Kinnow
- Grape Fruit: Mash Seedless, Duncan, Foster and Shamber
- Lemon: Eureka, Lisbon Lemon and rough Lemon
- Lime: Kaghzi Lime and Sweet Lime
Soil and Climate
Citrus trees can be grown on a wide range of soils, including deep sandy loam, loam and clay loam. However, they do not grow well in very heavy, clayey, sandy, and alkaline or water logged soils. Citrus fruits trees are grown in tropical and sub-tropical climate. Temperature is the main factor affecting, time of blooming, maturity, producing and fruit quality of citrus.
All the improved varieties are propagated by means of budding on rough lemons or sour orange. Rootstocks are generally grown through seed, T budding/T grafting are the usual method of citrus cultivars propagation. Budding may be done during spring (Feb-March) and autumn (August-October) when bark slip freely from both scion and stock. Bud should be selected from mature wood of productive and healthy trees. In sweet lime propagation through cutting is a common method.
At the time of transplanting the top portion should be balanced with the roots by removing some of the leaves, if necessary. Annual pruning is done to remove dried, diseased and those branches overcrowding the top of the tree. For a young citrus tree to have good frame work, no branches should be allowed on the main stem and two to four evenly spaced main limbs should be selected to provide balanced frame work. In Pakistan however, no systematic pruning is followed except for removal of dried, diseased and unwanted twigs.
The preferred method of irrigation is a basin round each tree the size of. There should be channels connecting basins so that irrigation of fruits trees can be independent of the intercropped area between the tree lines which have different water requirements. Growth sensitive periods to water shortage are flowering time (Feb/Mar), fruit setting (Apr/May).
Fertilizers and Manures
Application of manures and fertilizers start right from the planting of orchard and the first application are made at the time of filling of pits. In an orchard of average fertility, NP and K may be applied in the ratio of 70:35:70 grams per year age of the tree respectively and the dose may be stabilized after 10 years (700:350:700 g of NPK per tree). These applications may be supplemented by FYM at 10 kg per year age of the tree. The increase or decrease in the fertilizer doses may be regulated on the basis of fertility status report of the soil and plants.
- Apply FYMs at the rate of 40 to 80 kg per tree during the winter season in Dec/Jan before flowering
- Apply 3-4 kg SSP and 1.5 to 2 kg of Urea 15-20 days (Jan/Feb) before flowering
- Supply a further amount of Urea of 1.5 kg per tree after fruit setting (Mar/Apr)
- If necessary 1.5 kg of Potassium Sulphate may be applied at the time of applying FYM
- Watering is essential after each application of fertilizer
Kinnow can be harvested from mid November and continues up to May. However, January to March is the peak harvesting season.
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