TPCotton

  • English Name:
  • Urdu Name:
  • Scientific Name:
  • Family:
  • Cotton
  • Kapas
  • Gossypium herbaceum
  • Malvaceae

Pakistan’s economy depends heavily on Cotton crop. The cotton having a share of 1.4 percent in GDP and 6.7 percent in agriculture value addition is an important source of raw material to the textile industry. During July-March 2013-14, textile industry fetched foreign exchange of US $ 10.385 billion. During 2013-14, the crop was cultivated on an area of 2806 thousand hectares, 2.5 percent less than last year’s area of 2879 thousand hectares. The production stood at 12.8 million bales during the period 2013-14 against the target of 14.1 million bales, showing decline of 9.2 percent against the target and decline of 2.0 percent over the last year production of 13.0 million bales (GOP-2014). The cotton production is decreased due to fall in the area sown which is due to less rates of cotton nationally and internationally prevailed during last two years that discouraged the growers to put more area under crop and shifting the area to maize and rice crops in some districts of Punjab due to their better market returns.

Plant Population

Sowing Time Plant to plant Distance Row to Row Distance Plant Population/Acre
Early Sowing (March) 12-15 Inches 2 feet 6 Inches 14000-17500
Medium Sowing (April) 9-12 Inches 2 feet 6 Inches 17500-23000
Late Sowing (1st-15th May) 6-9 Inches 2 feet 6 Inches 23000-35000

Seed Rate

Germination %age Delinted seed (kg/acre) Fuzzy (Kg/acre)
75 & Above 6 8
60 8 10
50 10 12

Delinting

Arrange 10% more seed for replanting due to any unforeseen reason

Type of Acid Quantity
Commercial Sulfuric Acid 1 liter for 10 Kg fuzzy seed

Seed Treatment

Seed treatment is very important for cotton. Treat the seed with insecticide i.e. Escort @ 5g/kg seed or Contest @ 7g/kg seed, to prevent the seed from whitefly and other insects. To protect the seed from soil born & seed born seedling diseases, treat the seed with fungicide i.e., Terranil or Combinex @ 5g/kg seed.

Land Preparation

To obtain adequate plant stand

  • The land – free of stubbles, clods and well pulverized
  • Deep ploughing – In soil that restricts plant growth
  • Green manuring 25-35 days before planting
  • Properly leveled Field – for uniform application of irrigation
  • Single Rouni: Deeply ploughed or green manured fields
  • Double Rouni: Fallow fields or after wheat crop

Sowing methods

(1)Sowing with Drill

With drill sowing,

  • Keep the row to row distance 2.5 feet
  • Keep the seed depth 2-2.5 Inch (5-7cm)
  • After 1st irrigation, earth up the soil at alternate lines

Benefits of Drill Sowing

  • It saves water 20-30%
  • Make Weed control easier
  • Proper crop height
  • Better use of fertilizer
  • Easy to spray
  • More Production

(2)Sowing at Ridges

(i)For Ridge sowing with Machine

  • Field should be level
  • Sow at dry ridges
  • Keep the water level of first irrigation, 2 inch below from the seed
  • 2nd irrigation should provide after 5-6 days

(ii)Ridge Sowing with hand (Chopa)

  • In case of sowing with hand, first irrigate the field at the depth of 6-7 inches (15-17.5cm)
  • Just after the irrigation, sow the seed 1 inch above the water level
  • Keep the water level of first irrigation, 2 inch below from the seed
  • Fill the gaps after 2nd irrigation in wattar condition

Benefits of Ridge Sowing

  • Attain Good seed germination and full plant population
  • Sowing can be done at more area in less time
  • Water saving as compared to traditional sowing
  • Saves from loss due to rain
  • Saves from seed wastage
  • Spray is easy incase of rain and irrigation

Sowing Time

Non-Core Area

Faisalabad, T.T. Singh, Jhang, Sahiwal, Okara, Kasur, Pakpattan Month of May and Bhakkar, Mianwali, Khushab Mid April

Core- Area

Multan, Khanewal, Vehari, Lodhran, Bahawalnagar, May to Mid June
Bahawalpur, D.G. Khan, Rajanpur, Muzaffargarh, Layyah, R.Y. Khan,

Desi Cotton

Lahore Division, Mianwali, Sargodha, Gujrat, M B Din, Khushab 2nd week of April

Irrigations

Method of sowing Irrigations
Drill Sowing Provide 1st irrigation after 30-35 days after sowing, and provide rest of irrigations after 12-15 days. Provide last irrigation after 10th October if wheat has to cultivate after cotton.
Sowing on ridges Provide 1st irrigation 3-4 days after sowing, provide 2nd 3rd & 4th irrigation after 6-9 days interval and provide rest of irrigation after 15 days interval. Provide last irrigation after 15th October if wheat has to cultivate after cotton.

Fertilizers

(For Sowing between 15th March to 15th April)

Land Nature

Nutrient Requirement / Acre (Kgs)

Fertilizer Dose/Acre (In Bags)

N

P (p2o5)

K (K20)

Week

161

70

50

3 Bag DAP + 5.75 Bag Urea + 2 Bag Potassium Salphate

Medium

161

58

50

2.5 Bag DAP + 6 Bag Urea + 2 Bag Potassium Salphate

Rich

161

46

50

2 Bag DAP + 6.25 Bag Urea + 2 Bag Potassium Salphate

(For Sowing between 15th April to 15th May)

Land Nature

Nutrient Requirement / Acre (Kgs)

Fertilizer Dose/Acre (In Bags)

N

P (p2o5)

K (K20)

Week

80

58

38

2.5 Bag DAP + 2.5 Bag Urea + 1.5 Bag Potassium Salphate

Medium

80

46

38

2 Bag DAP + 2.75 Bag Urea + 1.5 Bag Potassium Salphate

Rich

80

35

38

1.5 Bag DAP + 3 Bag Urea + 1.5 Bag Potassium Salphate

  • The quantity of Nitrogen will depend upon the variety and soil test.
  • Nitrogen should be applied 1/3 at sowing, 1/3 at 1st irrigation and 1/3 at flowering
  • Application of Nitrogen fertilizers should be completed by 15th August
  • Phosphate fertilizers need not to be applied to cotton crop if its full dose was applied to wheat crop
  • Potash should be applied after soil test.
  • Potash fertilizer should be added at planting to soils showing less than 125 ppm available K

Micronutrients

  • To fulfill the deficiency of Zinc use EDTA Chelated zinc “Select”@2kg/acre
  • Boron deficiency can be reduced by using “Direx”@500mL/acre.

Weed Control

  • To control weeds, pre-emergence herbicides i.e. TOP MAX @ 900mL/acre must be use just after planting
  • Efficient weed control requires uniform application of weedicides with flat fan or flood jet nozzle and proper incorporation

Pest Management

Click on below links for Insects, Weeds and Diseases

Insects Diseases Weeds