TPSugar Cane

  • English Name:
  • Common Names:
  • Scientific Name:
  • Family:
  • Sugarcane
  • Kamaad
  • Saccharum officinarum
  • Poaceae

Sugarcane is a tropical, perennial grass that forms lateral shoots at the base to produce multiple stems, typically three to four meters high and about five cm in diameter. The stems grow into cane stalk, which when mature constitutes approximately 75% of the entire plant. A mature stalk is typically composed of 11–16% fiber, 12–16% soluble sugars, 2–3% non-sugars, and 63–73% water. A sugarcane crop is sensitive to the climate, soil type, irrigation, fertilizers, insects, disease control, varieties, and the harvest period. Sugarcane is an important and high value cash crop of Pakistan. Sugarcane accounts for 3.4 % in Agriculture values addition and 0.7% in GDP. During July-March 2013-14, sugar export earned foreign exchange of US$ 236.8 million. Sugarcane was sown on an area of 2932.5 thousand acres showing an increase of 3.9 %. The production of sugarcane for the year 2013-14 stood at 66.5 million tonnes, 2.3 % more production against targets.

Causes of Low Cane Yield

  • Improper land preparation.
  • Lack of seed propagation facilities
  • Use of low seed rate
  • Planting time
  • Planting method
  • Inadequate and imbalanced fertilizer use
  • Scarcity of irrigation water
  • Weed infestation
  • Plant protection
  • Sowing of unapproved varieties

Production Technology

Land Preparation

To get maximum production from sugarcane crop, rich fertile land with good water holding capacity is suitable. Sugarcane crop also cultivated after rice and cotton crops. After harvesting these crops mix the stubbles in soil with rotavator or disc harrow. To make 10-12 inches deep ridges, use cross chisel cultivator two times. If there is need to make more deep ridges i.e. up to 18 inches then use sub-soiler, and level the land. To make soil more soft, use cultivator 3-4 times. For better soil preparation use sub-soiler once after every three years.

Sowing method

Sugarcane sowing in deep & wide ridges

After deep plowing, level the land with land leveler. Make 10-12 inches deep and 4 feet wide ridges with Ridger. Mix the phosphorus and potash fertilizers and then make two lines of sugarcane sets in the ridges by joining sets length-wise with each others. To protect the sugarcane sets from termites and root borer attack, apply Refree (Danedar) or Rector (Danedar) @ 8kg / acre by pouring over the sets, after that cover these sets with little layer of soil carefully, and irrigate the field. For covering sets with soil, avoid using land leveler.

Benefits of sowing sugarcane in deep & wide ridges

To get good production the distance between two ridges should be 4 feet. In wide ridges, plants can get sunlight, air and nutrients in abundant quantity. Moreover farmers can perform hoeing or earthing up easily. This sowing method is cost and time saving also. Farmer can also adjust Irrigation plan for crop, by providing irrigation to alternate ridges.

Seed Rate

For timely sowing, the sugarcane sets having four buds should be 13-15 thousands per acre or the sugarcane sets containing three buds should be 17-20 thousand per acre. This quantity of sugarcane sets can be obtained from 100-120 Mounds sugarcane. If sowing is late or land is not properly prepared the seed rate should be increased 10-15%. Except from this, the sugarcane sets can also be obtained from 12-16 Marlas of standing crop of sugarcane, but remember in case of 12 Marlas, the crop weight should not be less than 9 Mounds/Marla & in case of 16 Marlas, the crop weight should not be less than 7 Mounds/Marla.

Sugarcane varieties

1.Early maturing varieties

CPF-243, HSF-240, HSF-242, CP-400 – 77, CPF-237

2.Medium Maturing Varieties

SPF-245, SPF-234, SPF-213, CPF-246, CPF-247
Note; SPF-234 is fit for only Rajan Pur, Bahawalpur and R.Y. Khan Districts

3.Late Maturing Varieties

COJ-84

Prohibited varieties

COL-54, TRITON, CO-1148 (INDIAN), COL-29, COL-44, BL-4, L-116, L-118, SPF-238, BF-162

Irrigation Requirement

Sugarcane February sowing requires 64 acre inch of water and September sowing requires 80 acre inch of water. Keeping in view this scenario, sugarcane crop requires 16-20 irrigations.

Month wise Water Requirement Table for February Sowing Crop of Sugarcane
(Keeping In view the weather condition)

Month

Number of Irrigations (Approximately)

Gap between Irrigations (Days)

March – April

2 – 3

20 – 30

May – June

5 – 6

10 – 12

July – August

3 – 4

15 – 20

September – October

2 – 3

20 – 30

November – February

4

30

Total Irrigations

16-20

 

Fertilizers Requirement

Soil Fertility

Nutrient Requirement / Acre (Kgs)

Fertilizer Dose / Acre (In Bags)

N

P

(p2o5)

K

(K20)

WEAK SOIL

Organic matter=

up to 0.86%

P=up to 7 ppm

K= up to 80 ppm

120

69

50

4 Bag Urea + 3 Bag DAP + 2 Bag Potassium Sulphate  OR

5.25 Bag Urea + 3 Bag TSP + 2 Bag Potassium Sulphate  OR

5.25 Bag Urea + 8 Bag SSP(18%) + 2 Bag Potassium Sulphate  OR

6.5 Bag NP + 4 Bag CAN + 2 Bag Potassium Sulphate

MEDIUM SOIL

Organic matter=

0.86 – 1.29%

P= 7-14 ppm

K= 80-180 ppm

92

46

50

3.25 Bag Urea + 2 Bag DAP + 2 Bag Potassium Sulphate  OR

4 Bag Urea + 2 Bag TSP + 2 Bag Potassium Sulphate  OR

4 Bag Urea + 5 Bag SSP(18%) + 2 Bag Potassium Sulphate  OR

4.5 Bag NP + 3.5 Bag CAN + 2 Bag Potassium Sulphate

RICH SOIL

Organic matter=

More than 1.29%

P= More than 14 ppm

K= More than 180 ppm

69

23

25

2.5 Bag Urea + 1 Bag DAP + 1 Bag Potassium Sulphate  OR

3 Bag Urea + 1 Bag TSP + 1 Bag Potassium Sulphate  OR

3 Bag Urea + 2.5 Bag SSP(18%) + 1 Bag Potassium Sulphate  OR

2.5 Bag NP + 3 Bag CAN + 1 Bag Potassium Sulphate

Pest Management

Click on below links for Insects, Weeds and Diseases

Insects Diseases Weeds